Annona cherimola Mill.


Common Names: Cherimoya (U.S., Latin America), Custard Apple (U.K. and Commonwealth), Chirimoya, Chirimolla.

Related species: Ilama (Annona diversifolia), Pond Apple (A. glabra), Manrito (A. jahnii). Mountain Soursop (A. montana), Soursop (A. muricata), Soncoya (A. purpurea), Bullock’s Heart (A. reticulata), Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa), Atemoya (A. cherimola X A. squamosa).

Distant affinity: Pawpaw (Asimina triloba), Biriba (Rollinia deliciosa), Wild Sweetsop (R. mucosa), Keppel Apple (Stelechocarpus burakol).

Origin: The cherimoya is believed to be native to the inter-andean valleys of Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Seeds from Mexico were planted in California (Carpinteria) in 1871.

Adaptation: The cherimoya is subtropical or mild-temperate and will tolerate light frosts. Young growing tips are killed at 29° F and and mature trees are killed or severely injured at 25° F. If cherimoyas do not receive enough chilling, the trees will go dormant slowly and then experience delayed foliation. The amount of chilling needed is estimated to be between 50 and 100 hours. The tree grows well in the coastal and foothill areas of southern California, doing best at a slight elevation, 3 to 15 miles from ocean. It is worth attempting in sunny, south-facing, nearly frost-free locations from San Francisco Bay Area to Lompoc, and may survive to fruit in a very few protected Central Valley foothill locations from Chico to Arvin. Resentful of the excessive dry heat of the interior, it is not for the desert. Cherimoyas are not recommended for container culture.


Growth Habit: The cherimoya is a fairly fairly dense, fast-growing, evergreen tree, briefly deciduous in California from February through April. The tree can reach 30 feet or more, but is fairly easily restrained. Young trees “harp,” forming opposite branches as a natural espalier. These can be trained against a surface, or pruned off to form a regular free-standing trunk. Growth is in one long flush, beginning in April. The roots commence as taproot, but the slow-growing root system is rather weak, superficial, and ungreedy. Young plants need staking.

Foliage: The attractive leaves are single and alternate, 2 to 8 inches long and up to 4 inches wide. They are dark green on top and velvety green on the bottom, with prominent veins. New growth is recurved, like a fiddle-neck. Axillary buds are hidden beneath fleshy leaf petioles.

Flowers: The fragrant flowers are borne solitary or in groups of 2 or 3 on short, hairy stalks along the branches. They appear with new growth flushes, continuing as new growth proceeds and on old wood until midsummer. The flowers are made up of three fleshy, greenish-brown, oblong, downy outer petals and three smaller, pinkish inner petals. They are perfect but dichogamous, lasting approximately two days, and opening in two stages, first as female flowers for approximately 36 hours. and later as male flowers. The flower has a declining receptivity to pollen during the female stage and is unlikely to be pollinated by its own pollen in the male stage.

B/W sketch - Flower too early B/W sketch - Flower female stage
B/W sketch - Flower male stage B/W sketch - Flower too late

Fruits: The compound fruit is conical or somewhat heart-shaped, 4 to 8 inches long and up to 4 inches in width, weighing on the average 5-1/2 to 18 ounces, but the largest fruits may reach 5 pounds in weight. The skin, thin or thick, may be smooth with fingerprint-like markings or covered with conical or rounded protuberances. The sweet, juicy, white flesh is melting, subacid and very fragrant. The fruit is of a primitive form with spirally arranged carpels, resembling a raspberry. Each segment of flesh surrounds a single hard black bean-like seed. The fruit size is generally proportional to the number of seeds within. They ripen October to May.


Location: Cherimoyas prefer a sunny exposure, buoyant marine air and cool nights. In southern California do not plant where heat collects on barren hillside or against a wall, since the leaves and fruit may sunburn badly. In the north, do the opposite: plant against a south facing wall to collect heat and encourage early bud-break and fruit ripening. The trees need protection from constant ocean or Santa Ana winds which may damage them and interfere with pollination and fruit set.

Soil: The cherimoya performs well on a wide range of soil types from light to heavy, but seems to do best on a well-drained, medium soil of moderate fertility. The optimum pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.6.

Irrigation: Cherimoyas need plenty of moisture while they are growing actively, but should not be watered when they are dormant. The trees are susceptible to root rot in soggy soils, especially in cool weather. Commence deep watering biweekly in April. Drip irrigation is also an excellent way to supply water. It is best to avoid poor water to prevent salt build-up. Drought-stressed trees will drop their leaves, exposing the fruit to sunburn.

Fertilization: Cherimoyas should be fertilized on a regular basis. Apply a balanced fertilizer, such as 8-8-8 NPK, in midwinter, then every three months. Increase the amount of fertilizer each year until the trees begin to bear fruit. Mature trees require an annual application of 4 ounces of actual nitrogen per inch of trunk diameter. Cherimoyas also respond to organic amendments. It should be kept in mind that yellow leaves may mean that the soil too dry or the weather too cold, not always a need for fertilizer.

Pruning: Cherimoyas have rather brittle wood. Prune during the dormant period to develop strong branches that can support the heavy fruit. Train the tree to two scaffold branches at 2 feet of trunk, pruning them to a 2 foot length. Save only the strongest single shoots, preferably those at 60 to 90 degree angle, and remove the others. In the following years, remove two-thirds of the previous year’s growth, leaving six or seven good buds, at time of new growth. This will keep fruiting wood within reach of the ground. Thin out crossing branches.

Frost Protection: Young trees are very frost sensitive. Wrap the trunk and scaffold with sponge foam for protection, or cover the entire tree. In cooler areas plant next to a south-facing wall or under the eaves to trap house heat.

Pollination: Since natural pollinators are not present in California, the flowers must be pollinated by hand. This is best done in mid-season of bloom, over a period of two to three months. In early evening, collect in a small bottle the anthers and pollen from the interior of fully open male flowers with a #2 or #3 artists brush. Anthers will be tan colored and the white pollen falling from them will be obvious. The pollen has its highest viability at the time it is shed and declines significantly with time. Immediately apply freshly collected pollen with a small brush to the flowers in partially open, female stage. If no female stage flowers are available, pollen may be saved in the sealed container under refrigeration overnight. Pollen may then be applied to female stage flowers in the morning. In large scale operations the pollen may be mixed with inert Lycopodium spores, PVC, starch or talc powder and applied with aspirator-type Japanese apple-pollinators, to save time and pollen. Pollinate every two or three days, and only flowers easily reached inside the tree, to avoid sunburned and wind-damaged fruit. If pollination efforts are quite successful, it may be necessary to thin the fruit. Too much fruit may result in small size and adversely effect future yields.

Propagation: Since there are no recognized rootstocks for cherimoyas, seedlings are universally utilized. Seeds from the White cultivar (Dr. White) are thought by some to produce superior rootstocks, however there does not appear to be a great deal of objective data to support this position. Seeds remain viable for two to three years if kept dry and protected from weevil and fungi. With 70° F bottom heat, seed will germinate in about 21 days, but will require about 40 days under normal ambient growing conditions. Seedlings should be transplanted to deep containers (approximately 18″) when they are 3″ tall to promote development of the tap root. In frost-free areas, it is recommended that seedlings for spring grafting be planted in their ultimate location in the fall and grafted in the ground the following spring.

Grafting is most successful in January through May provided previous years leaves have not been shed from the potential scionwood. During this period no scion preparation is required other than removal of leaves. All normal grafting techniques appear to be equally successful. However in topworking, nurse branches are desirable if not essential for success. To bud, collect budwood in July store refrigerated for 10 days in plastic. Petioles will drop exposing dormant buds. Bud at once using chip bud technique and wrap well against dehydration. Grafted plants will bear in two to three years.

Pests and Diseases: Mealybugs and snails are the main pests of cherimoyas. Keep ducks or apply copper strips to the trunks for control of snails. Mealybugs are brought by ants which can be controlled to some extent by maintaining fresh Tanglefoot on masking tape around the trunk. The masking tape is important to prevent damage to the tree. Skirt the tree to prevent ant access from the ground or weeds. No chemicals are registered for use on Cherimoyas.

Cherimoyas are susceptible to Armillaria (Oak Root Fungus) and Verticillium. Do not plant in old vegetable gardens, or near tomatoes, eggplant or asters. Crown rot can kill trees damaged by frost or growing in saturated soil, as well as from trunks hit by frequent, superficial lawn sprinkling.

Harvest: The fruit turns a pale green or creamy yellow color as they reach maturity. Color change is not marked in cool weather. They should be picked when still firm and allowed to soften at room temperature. Ripe fruit will give to soft pressure. Overripe fruit will be dark brown. Fruit left on the tree too long will usually crack or split and begin to decay. The fruit should be clipped rather than pulled from the tree. Cut the stem close to the fruit so it won’t puncture other fruit during storage.

Store mature fruit above 55° F to prevent chilling injury to the skin and flesh. Ripe fruit will deteriorate quickly but can be stored at temperatures lower than 55° F for short periods. Ripe cherimoyas can be frozen and eaten like ice cream. Cherimoyas are best served chilled, cut in half or quartered and eaten with a spoon. The fruit can also be juiced or used to make delicious sorbets or milkshakes.

Commercial Potential: Though unusual in appearance, cherimoyas are readily accepted by western tastes and has become a favorite tropical fruit. Demand greatly exceeds supply in all U.S. markets as most fruit never leaves California, the only producing state. The fruit commands high wholesale and retail prices, but costs are high and major crop losses from frost and fruit splitting are an ever present possibility. The major labor costs are pruning, pollination, ant control and irrigation.


Origin James Bays, Ventura, Calif., 1920. Tree broad, to 20 ft. Best in Carpenteria area. Fruits round, medium size, light green, skin shows fingerprint like marks (impressa type). Flavor good, almost lemony.
Big Sister
Origin James Neitzel, San Diego, Calif., 1979. Sibling of Sabor. Fruit large, very smooth, good flavor; impressa type. Often self-fruitful.
Origin A. F. Booth, Hollywood, Calif., 1921. Among hardiest of cherimoya, does well in most present growing areas. Tree 20 to 30 feet high. Fruit is conical, impressa type, medium size, rather seedy, with flavor that suggests papaya.
Origin A.M. Chaffey, West Los Angeles, Calif., 1945. Seed from Salta, Argentina. Tree rather open, fast growing. For coastal areas. Fruit small to medium, round, impressa type, with high, lemony flavor.
Tree broad, branches limber, spreading. Selected for superior hardiness. Fruit medium, quite dark green, mammillated, flavor good.
El Bumpo
Origin Rudy Haluza, Villa Park, Calif., 1986. Fruit conical, medium size, mammillated, not suited for commerce. Skin soft, practically edible. Flavor among the finest.
Medium, skin smooth, plated, yellowish green. Pulp has smooth texture, excellent flavor, very juicy. Ripens November to March.
Knight (syns. DV, Pierce, M&N Pierce)
Origin a Mr. Knight, Orange, Calif., 1930’s. Scions imported from Mexico. Recovered from Dr. Pierce’s ranch, Goleta, in 1950’s and propagated under several names. Tree has medium vigor, medium-sized pale green wavy leaves. Fruit has minor protuberances, a thin skin, a slightly grainy texture and is quite sweet.
Origin Rudy Haluza, Villa Park, Calif.,1986. Tree large. Fruit impressa type, round conical; early harvest. Sweet, strong flavor.
McPherson (syn. Spain)
Tree pyramidal, vigorous, to 30 ft. Fruits small to medium in size, conical, dark green, impressa type, not seedy. Flavor suggests banana, sweetness varies with temperature while maturing.
Origin George Emerich, Fallbrook, Calif., 1983. From Ecuadorian seed. Tree vigorous, bears quickly, flowers profuse, tendency to self-pollinating. Fruits smooth, light green, conical, 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 pounds. Skin thin, tender. Flavor has good sweet-acid balance.
Origin William Ott, La Habra Heights, Calif., 1936. Plant patent #656. Seed from Mexico, D.F. Tree strong growing. Fruit medium, heart shaped tuberculate, flesh yellow, seedy, very sweet. Matures early.
Pierce (syns. Knight, Escondido White, Ryerson, Thomson-Spain, & Bayott)
Believed to be from a group of scions imported from Mexico in the 1930’s by a Mr. Knight of Orange. Dr. H. F. Pierce planted a grove in Goleta in that period made up largely of trees produced by Knight. This cultivar was Dr. Pierce’s favorite and was named “Pierce” by him. Tree is vigorous with large dark green leaves. Fruit is medium sized elongated conically shaped with very smooth skin and a high sugar content.
Origin James Neitzel, San Diego, Calif., 1979. Sibling of “Big Sister”. Fruit mammillated, varies in size, not usually large. Among the best in flavor.
Origin Hollywood, Calif., 1924. Tree moderately vigorous. Fruit medium to large elongated conical, tuberculate, light green, flavor good. Seed enclosed in an obtrusive sac of flesh.
White (syn. Dr.White)
Origin J. H. MacPherson, Lemon Grove, Calif., 1928. Tree open, unkempt; to 35 feet, needs forming. A commercial favorite at Carpinteria. Best near coast. Fruit large, to 4 pounds, conical, with superficial small lumps (umbonate). Flesh juicy, flavor weak, suggesting mango-papaya.


  • California Avocado Society Yearbook, 1947 pp 67-70.
  • Morton, Julia F. Fruits of Warm Climates. Creative Resources Systems, Inc. 1987. pp. 65-69.
  • Ortho Books. All About Citrus and Subtropical Fruits. Chevron Chemical Co. 1985. pp. 23-25.
  • Popenoe, Wilson. Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. Hafner Press. 1974. Facsimile of the 1920 edition. pp. 161-177.
  • Sanewski, G. M. Growing Custard Apples, Brisbane, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Horticulture Branch, 1987.
  • Smithsonian Institution, U.S. National Herbarium Contributions, Vol. 18 (1927).



© Copyright 1996, California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.
Questions or comments? Contact us.

unripe dwarf pawpaw



Asimina triloba


Common Name:Pawpaw, Paw Paw, Papaw, Poor Man’s Banana, Hoosier Banana, etc. (In Australia the tropical papaya, Carica papaya, is also known as Pawpaw).

Related species: Asimina incarna, A. longifolia, A. obovata, A. parviflora, A. pygmaea, A. reticulata, A. tetramera, A. X nashii. These eight Asimina species grow in the southeastern United States.

Distant Affinity: Cherimoya (Annona cherimola), Soursop (Annona muricata), Custard Apple (Annona reticulata), Sugar Apple, Sweetsop (Annona squamosa), Atemoya (Annona squamosa X A. cherimola).

Origin: The pawpaw is native to the temperate woodlands of the eastern U.S. The American Indian is credited with spreading the pawpaw across the eastern U.S. to eastern Kansas and Texas, and from the Great Lakes almost to the Gulf. Fossils prove the pawpaw is indigenous to the U.S.

Adaptation: The pawpaw is adapted to the humid continental climate of its native habitat. It is seldom found near the Atlantic or Gulf coasts. It requires a minimum of 400 hours of winter chill and at least 160 frost-free days. Pawpaws appear to be sensitive to low humidities, dry winds and cool maritime summers. It has been successfully grown in parts of California and the Pacific Northwest that meet its growing requirements. It has grown well in the San Jose area (USDA Climate Zone 9 or Sunset Climate Zone 15). The climatic conditions of Southern California make growing the pawpaw there more difficult. The deep winter dormancy of the tree makes it highly frost tolerant, withstanding temperatures of -25° F or lower (hardy to USDA Climate Zone 5). Pawpaws can be grown as container specimens, although this is not often practiced. A deep pot is needed to accommodate the root system.


Growth Habit: The pawpaw is a deciduous, often narrowly conical tree growing from about 12 feet to around 20 feet. Pawpaw trees are prone to producing root suckers a few feet from the trunk. When these are permitted to grow, the single-clone pawpaw patch comes into being. The prevailing experiences of many individuals is that the pawpaw is a slow grower, particularly when it is young. However, under optimal greenhouse conditions, including photo-period extension light of approximately 16 hours, top growth of up to 5 feet can be attained in three months.

Foliage: The dark green, obovate-oblong, drooping leaves grow up to 12 inches long, giving the pawpaw an interesting tropical appearance. The leaves turn yellow and begin to fall in mid-autumn and leaf out again in late spring after the tree has bloomed.

Flowers: Dormant, velvety, dark brown flower buds develop in the axils of the previous years’ leaves. They produce maroon, upside-down flowers up to 2 inches across. The normal bloom period consists of about 6 weeks during March to May depending on variety, latitude and climatic conditions. The blossom consists of 2 whorls of 3 petals each, and the calyx has 3 sepals. Each flower contains several ovaries which explains why a single flower can produce multiple fruits.

Fruit: The pawpaw is the largest edible fruit native to America. Individual fruits weigh 5 to 16 ounces and are 3 to 6 inches in length. The larger sizes will appear plump, similar to the mango. The fruit usually has 10 to 14 seeds in two rows. The brownish to blackish seeds are shaped like lima beans, with a length of 1/2 to 1-1/2 inches. Pawpaw fruits often occur as clusters of up to nine individual fruits. The ripe fruit is soft and thin skinned.


Location: The young plant is very sensitive to full sunlight and requires filtered sun for the first year or two. The use of tree shelters is an ideal solution to the problem, permitting the plant to receive a full day of filtered sunlight. Once established, pawpaws prefer full sun. The large dangling leaves dislike strong winds. Overall the tree is an excellent edible landscape addition.

Soil: Pawpaws do best in deep, fertile soil that is moist, but well-drained and slightly acid (pH 5-7). The addition of compost to most western soils makes them more hospitable to the pawpaw. Avoid heavy, wet, alkaline soil.

Irrigation: The pawpaw needs regular watering during the growing season. The soil should be kept moist but avoid waterlogging.

Fertilization: The pawpaw responds to the application of an organic or granular fertilizer high in potassium twice a year. For container growing, 250 – 500 ppm of soluble 20-20-20 NPK plus soluble trace elements during growth phase is optimal.

Pruning: Ordinarily little pruning is required, except to remove dead, damaged or wayward branches. Periodic pruning may be used to stimulate some new growth each year on older trees, since it is new growth that produces fruit the following season.

Propagation: To break dormancy Pawpaw seed must receive a 90 to 120 day stratification, i.e. exposure to cold temperatures. To accomplish this, the seed should be placed in plastic freezer zipper bag containing a handful of moist sphagnum moss and refrigerated at 32° – 40° F. The over wintering of field planted seeds normally accomplishes this stratification requirement.

Germination of pawpaw seed is hypogeal–the shoot emerges without any cotyledons. Under ideal greenhouse culture, germination can be expected in about seven weeks. Seeds field-planted in the fall will emerge the following July or August. But before the shoot emerges, the seed will have sent down a 10 inch long tap root.

Hardwood cuttings are essentially impossible to root, while root cuttings have been variable to disappointing. Some success has been reported using softwood cuttings under intermittent mist with bottom heat (80° F) and supplemental light (14 hours). All grafting and budding techniques can be performed on the pawpaw, but T-budding is not recommended. Chip-budding has been reported to be successful. Scion wood should be gathered while the tree is dormant and kept refrigerated. Grafting can be done in the spring after vegetative growth begins.

Young pawpaw plants have fleshy, brittle roots with few fine root hairs, making them difficult to transplant. It is important to follow these helpful rules:

  1. Use seedlings, not root suckers.
  2. Move the tree with roots and soil intact. A container grown specimen is best.
  3. Transplant the tree in the spring after bud break.
  4. Give the plant good drainage and keep it well watered the first year.

Pests and diseases: Pawpaw trees are relatively disease free, including a resistance to Oak Root Fungus (Armillaria). A number of vertebrates such as foxes, opossums, squirrels and raccoons will eat the fruit, although deer, goats and rabbits will not eat the leaves or twigs. The attraction of pawpaw roots to gophers is a somewhat unknown factor, but it seems likely that they would not be the gopher’s first choice. The Zebra Swallowtail butterfly’s larvae feed exclusively on young, pawpaw foliage, but never in great numbers. On the West Coast, slugs, snails and earwigs can be easily controlled by the application of Tanglefoot to a band around the pawpaw tree trunk. It is important not to apply Tanglefoot directly to the bark, however.

Pollination: Poor pollination has always plagued the pawpaw in nature, and the problem has followed them into domestication. Pawpaw flowers are perfect, in that they have both male and female reproduction parts, but they are not self-pollinating. The flowers are also protogynaus, i.e., the female stigma matures and is no longer receptive when the male pollen is shed. In addition pawpaws are self-incompatible, requiring cross pollination from another unrelated pawpaw tree.

Bees show no interest in pawpaw flowers. The task of pollenization is left to unenthusiastic species of flies and beetles. A better solution for the home gardener is to hand pollinate, using a small, soft artist’s brush to transfer pollen to the stigma. Pollen is ripe for gathering when the ball of anthers is brownish in color, loose and friable. Pollen grains should appear as small beige-colored particles on the brush hairs. The stigma is receptive when the tips of the pistils are green, glossy and sticky, and the anther ball is firm and greenish to light yellow in color.

Harvest: Pawpaw fruit ripens during a four-week period between mid August and into October, depending on various factors. When ripe, it is soft and yields easily to a gentle squeeze, and has a pronounced perfumed fragrance. The skin of the green fruit usually lightens in color as it ripens and often develops blackish splotches which do not affect the flavor or edibility. The yellow flesh is custard like and highly nutritious. The best fruit has a complex, tropical flavor unlike any other temperate zone fruit. At present, the primary use of pawpaws is for fresh eating out of hand. The ripe fruit is very perishable with a shelf life of 2 or 3 days, but will keep up to 3 weeks if it is refrigerated at 40° – 45° F.

Commercial potential: Although pawpaw fruit is not yet a commercially viable commodity, the domestication process is well underway. Several academic institutions are setting up seventeen Regional Variety Trial sites. Kentucky State University is the site of Pawpaw National Clonal Germ-plasm Repository. The pawpaw has also found its way to several overseas countries, and a few of these are actively engaged in research. Pawpaw leaves and twigs contain substances with promising anti-cancer and pesitcidal properties.

Plant selection: A number of mail-order sources of pawpaw plants now offer both grafted cultivars and seedlings. Most seedling plants have been propagated from mixed seeds and will eventually end up producing undesirable fruit. Purchasers are advised to graft such plants to a known cultivar or order grafted plants initially. Container grown plants are much more likely to survive transplanting.

When placing an order for a pawpaw plant, it is helpful to have the Pawpaw Selection Option Chart below handy. Phoning in the order gives the opportunity to ask questions and substantiate it.

 Container Grown (1)  Bare Root (2)
CULTIVAR – on seedling root stock some sources most sources
CULTIVAR – from shoot/root on own root stock rarely available rarely available
SEEDLING – from seed of mixed seed (risky fruit quality) some sources most sources
SEEDLING – from seed of cultivar fruit (usually comes fairly true) rarely available rarely available
(1) easier to get established, good survival rate
(2) slower to get established, reduced survival rate


Callaway (1990) lists over 60 pawpaw cultivars, many of which are not available in the nursery trade. The Kentucky State list of cultivars, while not as extensive, is more current. The following cultivars are among the best with regard to fruit quality:

Fruit small. Flesh yellow, green skin. Seeds large. Flavor good.
Mary Foos Johnson
Similar to Sunflower.
Fruit medium. Flesh golden, slightly yellow skin. Flavor excellent.
Fruit large. Fewer seed but large. Flesh yellow. Flavor excellent.
Fruit large. Flesh yellow. Flavor excellent.
Fruit medium large. Flesh golden, yellowish skin. Few seeds. Flavor good. Purported to be self-fertile.
Sweet Alice
Fruit medium large. Prolific bearer. Flesh yellow. Flavor good.
Fruit small. Flesh yellow, green skin. Flavor mild, excellent.
Fruit medium. Flesh yellow, light green skin. Flavor excellent. Prolific bearer.
Fruit quite large. Flesh orange, green skin. Flavor superb.


  • Callaway, M. Brett. Pawpaw (Asimina triloba): a “Tropical” Fruit for Temperate Climates. New Crops. 1993.
  • Callaway, M. Brett. The Pawpaw (Asimina triloba). Kentucky State University, Frankfort, KY. 1990.
  • Callaway, M. Brett and Dorothy J. Callaway. Our Native Pawpaw: The Next New Commercial Fruit? Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. Fall 1992, pp 20-29.
  • Layne, D. R. Pawpaws. In: Register of Fruit and Nut Varieties, 3d ed. A.S.H.S. Press, Alexandria, VA, 1996.
  • Layne, D.R. The Pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal]: A New Fruit Crop for Kentucky and the United States. HortScience vol. 31, 1996, pp. 15-22.
  • Peterson, R. Neal. Pawpaws in the Garden, and Pawpaws in the Nursery Trade. Pawpaw Foundation, 1990.
  • Peterson, R. Neal. Pawpaw (Asimina). Acta Horticulture, ISHS. Feb.1991, pp. 569-600.
  • Reich, Lee. Uncommon Fruits Worthy of Attention. Addison-Wesley, 1991. pp. 3-13.
  • Kentucky State University Pawpaw Research Project



© Copyright 1996,1999, California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.
Questions or comments? Contact us.

Plant Propagation Chart by Claude Sweet

This is a very wide table.  Please click on the desired plant and then scroll to the right to see all propagation possibilities.  It is also possible to sort by column headings.

Capulin Cherry1,2,4555yesyesnono
Cherry of the Rio Grande1,2,4no5555nono
Kei Apple1,25yes5yesyesnono
Kiwi Fruit1,2,3yesyesyes4yesyesno
Malabar Chestnut1,4nononoyesyesnono
Miracle Fruit1545noyesnono
Natal Plum1545yesyesnono
Panama Berry1,25yes5yesyesnono
Passion Fruit4noyesyesyesyes2no
Paw Paw1,2no5noyesyesnono
Pepino Dulce154yesyesyesnono
Prickly Pear1no4noyesnonono
Raisin Tree1,4no5noyesyesnono
Star Fruit1,2no55yesyesnono
Sugar Cane1yes4nonononoyes
Sunnam Cherry1,2,4yesyesyesyesyesyesno
Tree Tomato1,45yesyesyesyesnono
White Sapote1,2nonono4nonono
  • 1. Used in plant-breeding programs
  • 2. Nursery rootstock production
  • 3. Requires stratification period for germination
  • 4. Common commercial method
  • 5..Very difficult; requires special procedures; variable success
  • 6. Difficult procedure used to increase valuable selections


Common Fruit Names: A-C


California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc

January 27, 1995


A – C D – L M – R S – Z


Common Name Genus species Family
Abaca Musa textilis Musaceae
Abiu Pouteria caimito Sapotaceae
Abyssinian Banana Ensete ventricosum Musaceae
Abyssinian Gooseberry Dovyalis abyssinica Flacourtiaceae
Acerola Malpighia punicifolia Malpighiaceae
Achiote Bixa orellana Bixaceae
Achira Canna edulis Cannaceae
African Apricot Mamumea africana Guttiterae
African Breadfruit Treculia africana Moraceae
African Gooseberry Dovyalis abyssinica Flacourtiaceae
African Honeysuckle Halleria lucida Scrophulariaceae
African Horned Cucumber Cucumis metuliferus Curcurbitaceae
African Locust Parkia biglobosa Leguminosae
African Oil Palm Elaeis guineensis Palmae
African Plum Vitex doriana Verbenaceae
African Walnut Coula edulis Olacaceae
Akebia Akebia quinata Lardizabalaceae
Akee Blighia sapida Sapindaceae
Allspice Pimenta dioica Myrtaceae
Almond Prunus dulcis Rosaceae
Alpine Strawberry Fragaria vesca Rosaceae
Alupag Euphoria didyma Sapindaceae
Amazon Tree-Grape Pourouma cecropiaefolia Moraceae
Ambarella Spondias dulcis Anacardiaceae
Ambra Spondias pinnata Anacardiaceae
American Black Currant Ribes americanum Saxifragaceae
American Black Gooseberry Ribes hirtellum Saxifragaceae
American Chestnut Castanea dentata Fagaceae
American Crab Apple Malus augustifolia Rosaceae
American Crab Apple Malus coronaria Rosaceae
American Cranberry Vaccinimum macrocarpon Ericaceae
American Cranberry Bush Viburnum trilobum Caprifoliaceae
American Dewberry Rubus flagellaris Rosaceae
American Elderberry Sambucus canadensis Caprifoliaceae
American Hazelnut Corylus americana Betulaceae
American Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Ebenaceae
American Plum Prunus americana Rosaceae
Amra Spondias pinnata Anacardiaceae
Amur River Grape Vitis amurensis Vitaceae
Ananasnaja Actinidia arguta X kolomikta Actinidiaceae
Andean Blackberry Rubus glaucus Rosaceae
Annatto Bixa orellana Bixaceae
Annona Asiatic Cananga odorata Annonaceae
Anonilla Annona palmeri Annonaceae
Appalachian Tea Ilex glabra Aquifoliaceae
Apple Malus Rosaceae
Apple Guava Psidium guajava Myrtaceae
Apple Rose Rosa pomifera Rosaceae
Appleberry Billardiera Pittosporaceae
Apricot Prunus americana Rosaceae
Arabian Coffee Coffea arabica Rubiaceae
Arctic Beauty Actinidia kolomikta Actinidiaceae
Arkurbal Willughbeia angustifolia Apocynaceae
Asian Pear Pyrus Pyrifolia Rosaceae
Atemoya Annona cherimola X squamosa Annonaceae
Australian Almond Terminalia canescens Combretaceae
Australian Brush Cherry Syzygium paniculatum Myrtaceae
Autumn Oleaster Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeagnaceae
Autumn Olive Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeagnaceae
Avocado Persea americana Lauraceae
Azarole Crataegus azarolus Rosaceae
Babaco Carica pentagona Caricaceae
Bacae Theobroma bicolor Sterculiaceae
Bacuri Platonia insignis Guttiferae
Bacuripari Rheedia macrophylla Guttiferae
Bacury-Pary Rheedia macrophylla Guttiferae
Bael Fruit Aegle marmelos Rutaceae
Baked Apple Berry Rubus chamaemorus Rosaceae
Bakupari Rheedia brasiliensis Guttiferae
Bakuri Platonia insignis Guttiferae
Banana Musa Musaceae
Banana Passion Fruit Passiflora antioquiensis Passifloraceae
Banana Passion Fruit Passiflora mollissima Passifloraceae
Barbados Cherry Malpighia punicifolia Malpighiaceae
Barbados Gooseberry Patinoa almirajo Bombacaceae
Barbados Gooseberry Pereskia aculeata Cactaceae
Barberry Berberis vulgaris Berberidaceae
Batoko Flacourtia indica Flacourtiaceae
Bay Tree Laurus nobilis Lauraceae
Bay Tree Persea borbonia Lauraceae
Beach Cherry Eugenia reinwardtiana Myrtaceae
Beach Plum Prunus maritima Rosaceae
Beach Strawberry Fragaria chiloensis Rosaceae
Bearss Lime Citrus latifolia Rutaceae
Bee Bee Raspberry Rubus Rosaceae
Belimbing Averrhoa carambola Oxalidaceae
Bell Apple Passiflora laurifolia Passifloraceae
Bengal Quince Aegle marmelos Rutaceae
Ber Zyzyphus jujuba Ramnaceae
Betel Nut Areca catechu Palmae
Bigay Antidesma bunius Euphorbiaceae
Bignai Antidesma bunius Euphorbiaceae
Bignay Antidesma bunius Euphorbiaceae
Bilimbi Averrhoa bilimbi Oxalidaceae
Billy Goat Plum Terminalia ferdinandiana Combretaceae
Biriba Rollinia mucosa Annonaceae
Black Apricot Prunus armeniaca dasycarpa Rosaceae
Black Cherry Prunus serotina Rosaceae
Black Choke Prunus serotina Rosaceae
Black Current Ribes nigrum Saxifragaceae
Black Elderberry Sambucus nigra Caprifoliaceae
Black Haw Viburnum prunifolium Caprifoliaceae
Black Huckleberry Gaylussacia baccata Ericaceae
Black Mulberry Morus nigra Moraceae
Black Persimmon Diospyros digyna Ebenaceae
Black Persimmon Diospyros texana Ebenaceae
Black Sapote Diospyros digyna Ebenaceae
Black Tamarind Dialium indum Leguminosae
Black Walnut Juglans nigra Juglandaceae
Black/White Pepper Piper nigrum Piperaceae
Blackberry Rubus Rosaceae
Blackberry Jam-Fruit Randia formosa Rubiaceae
Blackcap Rubus occidentalis Rosaceae
Blood Banana Musa sumatrana Musaceae
Blue Bean Shrub Decaisnea fargesii Lardizabalaceae
Blue Lilly Pilly Syzygium coolminianum Myrtaceae
Blue Passion Flower Passiflora caerulea Passifloraceae
Blue Taro Xanthosoma violaceum Araceae
Blueberry Vaccinium Ericaceae
Bokhara Plum Prunus bokhara Rosaceae
Bower Vine Actinidia arguta Actinidiaceae
Box Blueberry Vaccinium ovatum Ericaceae
Boysenberry Rubus ursinus Rosaceae
Bramble Rubus Rosaceae
Brazil Nut Bertholletia excelsa Lecythidaceae
Brazilian Guava Psidium guineense Myrtaceae
Breadfruit (seedless) Artocarpus altilis (communis) Moraceae
Breadfruit Pandanus odoratissimus Pandanaceae
Breadnut (seeded Breadfruit) Artocarpus altilis (camansi) Moraceae
Breadnut (seeded Breadfruit) Brosimum alicastrum Moraceae
Breadroot Psoralea esculenta Leguminosae
Brier Rose Rosa canina Rosaceae
Brush Cherry Syzygium paniculatum Myrtaceae
Bu annona Annona squamosa Annonaceae
Buah Susu Passiflora Passifloraceae
Buddha’s Hand Citron Citrus medica var. sacrodactylus Rutaceae
Buffalo Berry Shepherdia argentea Elaeagnaceae
Buffalo Berry Shepherdia canadensis Elaeagnaceae
Buffalo Current Ribes aureum Saxifragaceae
Buffalo Currant Ribes odoratum Saxifragaceae
Buffalo Thorn Zizyphus mucronata Rhamnaceae
Bullock’s heart Annona reticulata Annonaceae
Bunchosia Bunchosia argentea Malpighiaceae
Buni Antidesma bunius Euphorbiaceae
Bunya-Bunya Araucaria bidwilli Araucariaceae
Burdekin Plum Pleiogynium timorensis Anacardiaceae
Bush Butter Dacryodes edulis Burseraceae
Butternut Juglans cinerea Juglandaceae
Button Mangosteen Garcinia prainiana Guttiferae
Cabinet Cherry Prunus serotina Rosaceae
Cacao Theobroma cacao Sterculiaceae
Cactus Cereus peruvianus Cactaceae
Cactus Cereus triangularis Cactaceae
Caimito Chrysophyllum cainito Sapotaceae
Caimo Pouteria caimito Sapotaceae
Calamondin Citrofortunella mitis Rutaceae
California Bay Ubellalaria californica Lauraceae
California Wild Grape Vitis californica Vitaceae
Calubura Muntingia calabura Elaeocarpaceae
Camocamo Myrciaria dubia Myrtaceae
Camu Camu Myrciaria dubia Myrtaceae
Canadian Blackberry Rubus canadensis Rosaceae
Canadian Elderberry Sambucus canadensis Caprifoliaceae
Canary Island Date Palm Phoenix canariensis Palmae
Candlenut Aleurites moluccana Euphorbiaceae
Canistel Pouteria campechiana Sapotaceae
Cannon-ball Tree Couroupita guianensis Lecythidaceae
Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana Solanaceae
Caper Capparis spinosa Capparidaceae
Capulin Cherry Prunus salicifolia Rosaceae
Carambola Averrhoa carambola Oxalidaceae
Carob Ceratonia siliqua Leguminosae
Carpathian Walnut Juglans regia, carpathian strain Juglandaceae
Cas Psidium friedrichsthalianum Myrtaceae
Casana Cyphomandra casana Solanaceae
Cascara Rhamnus purshiana Rhamnaceae
Cashew Anacardium occidentale Anacardiaceae
Cassabanana Sicana oderifera Cucurbitaceae
Cat’s Eye Euphoria malaiense Sapindaceae
Catalina Cherry Prunus lyonii Rosaceae
Cattley Guava Psidium cattleianum Myrtaceae
Ceriman Monstera deliciosa Araceae
Ceylon Date Palm Phoenix zeylanica Palmae
Ceylon Gooseberry Dovyalis hebecarpa Flacourtiaceae
Champedek Artocarpus integer Moraceae
Changshou Kumquat Fortunella obovata Rutaceae
Charicuela Rheedia macrophylla Guttiferae
Chaste Tree Vitex agnus-castus Verbenaceae
Chayote Sechium edule Cucurbitaceae
Che Cudrania tricuspidata Moraceae
Chempedale Artocarpus integer Moraceae
Cherapu Garcinia prainiana Guttiferae
Cheremai Phyllanthus acidus Euphorbiaceae
Cherimoya Annona cherimola Annonaceae
Cherry of the Rio Grande Eugenia aggregata Myrtaceae
Chess Apple Sorbus aria Rosaceae
Chia Ye Ficus awkeotsang Moracedea
Chicle Tree Manilkara zapota Sapotaceae
Chico Sapote Manilkara zapota Sapotaceae
Chico Mamey Bunchosia armeniaca Malpighiaceae
Chilean Guava Ugni molinae Myrtaceae
Chilean Hazel Gevuina avellana Proteaceae
Chilean Wine Palm Jubaea chilensis Palmae
China Chestnut Sterculia monosperma Sterculiaceae
Chincopin Castanea pumila var. ashei Fagaceae
Chinese Asian Pear Pyrus usseriensis Rosaceae
Chinese Chestnut Castanea mollissima Fagaceae
Chinese Date Ziziphus jujuba Rhamnaceae
Chinese Date Palm Zizyphus vulgaris Rhamnaceae
Chinese Egg Gooseberry Actinidia rubricallus Actinidiaceae
Chinese Gooseberry Actinidia deliciosa Actinidiaceae
Chinese Hackberry Celtis sinensis Ulmaceae
Chinese Jello Ficus awkeotsang Moraceae
Chinese Mulberry Cudrania tricuspidata Moraceae
Chinese Olive Canarium album Burseraceae
Chinese Pear Pyrus pyrifolia Rosaceae
Chinese Raisin Tree Hovenia dulcis Rhamnaceae
Chinese Taro Alocasia cucullata Araceae
Chinese White Pear Pyrus bretschneideri Rosaceae
Chinese White Pear Pyrus usseriensis Rosaceae
Chinquapin Castanea pumila Fagaceae
Chitra Berberis aristata Berberidaceae
Chocolate Pudding Fruit Diospyros digyna Ebenaceae
Chokecherry Prunus virginiana Rosaceae
Chupa-Chupa Quararibea cordata Bombacaceae
Ciku Manilkara zapota Sapotaceae
Cimarrona Annona montana Annonaceae
Cinnamon Cinnamomum loureirii Lauraceae
Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Lauraceae
Ciruela Spondias purperea Anacardiaceae
Ciruela Verde Bunchosia argentea Malpighiaceae
Ciruelo Bunchosia argentea Malpighiaceae
Ciruelo Crytocarpa edulis Anacardiaceae
Citron Citrus medica Rutaceae
Clove Syzygium aromaticum Myrtaceae
Clove Currant Ribes aureum Saxifragaceae
Clove Currant Ribes odoratum Saxifragaceae
Cochin-goraka Garcina xanthochymus Guttiferae
Cocoa Theobroma cacao Sterculiaceae
Cocona Solanum sessiliflorum Solanaceae
Coconut Palm Cocos nucifera Palmae
Cocoplum Chrysobalanus icaco Chrysobalanaceae
Coffee Berry Rhamnus californica Rhamnaceae
Columbian Walnut Juglans colombensis Juglandaceae
Cometure Mouriris guianesis Mouririaceae
Commercial Banana Musa acuminata Musaceae
Commercial Banana Musa X paradisiaca Musaceae
Common Currant Ribes sativum Saxifragaceae
Common Guava Psidium guajava Myrtaceae
Common Juniper Juniperus communis Cupressacae
Conch Apple Passiflora maliformis Passifloraceae
Coontie Zamia integrifolia Cycadaceae
Cornelian Cherry Cornus mas Cornaceae
Corosol Rollinia emarginata Annonaceae
Corozo Aiphanes acanthophylla Palmae
Costa Rica Guava Psidium friedrichsthalianum Myrtaceae
Cotopriz Talisia oliviformis Sapindaceae
Country Walnut Aleurites moluccana Euphorbiaceae
Coyo Persea scheideana Lauraceae
Crabapple Malus Rosaceae
Cranberry Vaccinium Ericaceae
Cranberry Bush Viburnum triloba Caprifoliaceae
Crato Passion Fruit Passiflora cincinnata Passifloraceae
Creeping Blueberry Vaccinium crassifolium Ericaceae
Cuachilote Parmentiera edulis Bignoniaceae
Cuban Mangosteen Rheedia aristata Guttiferae
Cuban Spinach Montia perfoliata Portulacaceae
Cupu-Assu Theobroma grandiflorum Sterculiaceae
Currant Ribes Saxifragaceae
Currant Tomato Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Solanaceae
Curry Leaf Tree Murraya koenigii Rutaceae
Curuba Passiflora mollissima Passifloraceae
Custard Apple Annona reticulata Annonaceae
Custard Apple Annona squamosa Annonaceae


A – C D – L M – R S – Z


© Copyright 1995,1997, California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.
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Fruit Cultural Data — A


Chill Hours between 32°F and 45°F, less hours above 65°F
Water D = dry, W = wet, M = medium
Genus Species Common Name Harm Kill Chill Water Soil/pH
Abelmoschus esculentus Okra
Abelmoschus manihot Edible Hibiscus
Acmena smithii Lilly-pilly tree
Acrocomia totai Gru-gru Palm 25°F 17°F
Actinidia arguta Hardy Kiwi -25°F
Actinidia arguta var. purpurea Purpurea
Actinidia arguta X kolomikta Ananasnaja
Actinidia arguta X melanandra Ken’s Red
Actinidia callosa
Actinidia chinensis planch Smooth-skin kiwifruit
Actinidia chrysantha Smooth-skin kiwifruit
Actinidia coriacea
Actinidia deliciosa Kiwifruit 0°F No Salt
Actinidia eriantha Velvet Vine
Actinidia hemslyana
Actinidia kolomikta Arctic Beauty -40°F
Actinidia latifolia
Actinidia macrosperma
Actinidia melanandra -15°F
Actinidia polygama Silver vine
Actinidia purpurea <-20°F
Actinidia rubricallus Chinese Egg Gooseberry
Actinidia rufa
Actinidia valvata
Aegle marmelos Bael Fruit 10°F D 5-8
Aiphanes acanthophylla Corozo 32°F 27°F
Akebia quinata Akebia <-20°F
Akebia trifoliata -5°F
Alectryon excelsus Titoki
Aleurites moluccana Candlenut 28°F 25°F
Alocasia cucullata Chinese Taro 28°F 25°F
Alpinia officinarum Galangale 32°F 28°F
Amelanchier canadensis Serviceberry -50°F D <7.0
Amelanchier laevis Juneberry -30°F
Amelanchier sanguinea Roundleaf Serviceberry
Amelanchier Shadblow -30°F -50°F
Anacardium occidentale Cashew 32°F 28°F D 4.5-6.5
Ananas comosus Pineapple 35°F 28°F D 6-7
Annona asiatic Cananga Odorata
Annona cherimola Cherimoya 25°F D 6.5-7.6
Annona cherimola X squamosa Atemoya 28°F 26°F D
Annona chrysophylla Wild Custard Apple
Annona diversifolia Ilama 32°F 27°F
Annona glabra Pond apple 28°F 26°F
Annona montana Mountain soursop 28°F 23°F
Annona muricata Guanabana, Soursop 32°F 25°F
Annona purpurea Soncoya
Annona reticulata Custard Apple 30°F 26°F
Annona scleroderma Poshte
Annona senegalensis Wild Custard Apple
Annona sphaerocarpa Wild Soursop
Annona squamosa Sweetsop 31°F 27°F D Alkaline
Antidesma bunius Bigay 26°F
Antidesma dallachyanum Herbert River Cherry 26°F 25°F
Arachis hypogaea Peanut Annual W 5.0-6.0
Araucaria araucana Monkey Puzzle Tree
Araucaria bidwilli Bunya-Bunya
Arbutus unedo Strawberry Tree 28°F 25°F
Areca catechu Betel Nut
Arenga pinnata Black Sugar Palm 28°F 25°F
Artocarpus altilis Breadfruit 38°F 33°F
Artocarpus camansi Breadnut
Artocarpus communis See A. altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllus JackFruit 32°F 26°F W
Artocarpus hypargyraeus Kwai Muk 28°F 25°F
Artocarpus integer Chapedek, 42°F 31°F
Artocarpus integrifolius See A. heterophyllus
Artocarpus lakoocha Monkey Jack
Artocarpus odoratissima Marang 42°F 35°F
Artocarpus sericicarpus Pedalai 42°F 34°F
Asimina parviflora Dwarf Paw Paw 4°F
Asimina triloba Paw Paw -10°F to -31°F M
Averrhoa bilimbi Bilimbi 32°F D
Averrhoa carambola Star Fruit 30°F 26°F
Azadirachta indica Neem tree

© Copyright 1995,1997,  California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.

Questions or comments? Let us know.  [contact-form][contact-field label=’Name’ type=’name’ required=’1’/][contact-field label=’Email’ type=’email’ required=’1’/][contact-field label=’Comment’ type=’textarea’ required=’1’/][/contact-form]